Second Language Speech Production as Seen from Levelt’s Model Adaptation


Đỗ Thị Huyền Thanh
Hanoi University of Industry. Email:
Đặng Thị Minh Tâm


Speech production, conceptualisation, formulation, articulation, monitoring.


Second language (L2) speech production plays an important role in language teaching and learning, as well as in machine learning. Among several promising paradigms, Levelt’s model is still considered suitable for further studies. This paper reviews Levelt’s speech production model and its adaptation to L2 speech production. Firstly, Levelt’s modular model of first language (L1) speech production is revisited as a basis for understanding its adapted versions for L2 speech production. Next, details of stages of L2 speech production (Conceptualisation, Formulation, Articulation, and Monitoring) are presented in comparison with L1 speech production. Then, recent research related to L2 speech production is reviewed. The document analysis method is employed to find out the differences between L1 and L2 speech production, based on which implications for L2 speech production and acquisition are discussed. It is hoped that understanding cognitive processes involved in producing an L2 speech can facilitate teachers in teaching L2 speaking skills thanks to knowing how to choose suitable teaching materials and methods and develop valid instruments to measure learners’ oral competence.

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